6. Load
combinations
The load conditions described above were
combined in the following load combinations:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 
1.0 a + 1.0 b
1.0 a + 1.0 c
1.35 a + 1.35 b
1.35 a + 1.35 c
1.35 a + 0.54 b + 1.5 d
1.35 a + 0.54 b + 1.5 e
1.35 a + 0.40 b + 0.5 d + 1.0 f
1.00 a + 0.5 d + 1.5 g 
load conditions

 dead and permanent loads
 live load uniformly distributed
over the whole bridge
 live load uniformly distributed
over half the bridge
 uniform thermal load +15 °C
 uniform thermal load 15 °C
 flood load
 earthquake load

7. Soil characteristics at the
abutments
The geotechnical characteristics of the soil beyond the
abutments were obtained from the Conex report, and particularly from the
drawings showing the vertical sections of the abutments.
The threedimensional finite element model was extended
on each side, starting from the arch springers, for a depth of about 6 m.
On both banks it is possible to identify the following
stratigraphy: upperly there is a clayey sand material with fragments of
stone, then there is a layer of masonry of about 7 m, and finally hard
conglomerate is encountered.
From the samples which were driven out from the
vertical and horizontal boreholes in the abutments, the following values
of the materials of the abutments were obtained.
Hard
conglomerate Edyn (Mpa) 
Masonry
Qu (MPa) 
43200 
1.70 
14800 
2.60 
12000 ¸ 28700 
 
22650 
 
7100 ¸ 13500 
 
1400 ¸ 2300 
 
17500 
 
Boreholes 



Fc MPa 
E MPa 
BH3 
Tenelja 
0.0 ¸ 0.8 
22.57 
17000 / 20000 
BH4 
Conglomerate 
2.5 ¸ 3.0 

24000 
BH5 
Conglomerate 
2.0 ¸ 2.5 
7.40 
10435 
BH6 
Conglomerate 
2.0 ¸ 2.5 
8.80 
22642 
BH7 
Conglomerate 
1.0 ¸ 1.3 
10.95 
5634 
Masonry
Strength fc 
Mean MPa 
Min MPa 
Max MPa 
9 
7.4 
10.95 
Masonry
Modulus E 
Mean MPa 
Min MPa 
Max MPa 
19000 
10000 
24000 
8. Values of the material parameters assumed in
the design
On the basis of the values listed above, the following
values of the masonry strength and elasticity modulus were adopted.
Strength of the masonry

fc
min MPa 
fc
max MPa 
fc
mean MPa 
ft
MPa 
Arch 
6 
10 
8 
0.05 
Wedge 
3 
5 
5 
0.05 
Middle spandrel 
3 
5 
5 
0.05 
Lateral spandrels 
5 
8 
6 
0.05 
Slab 
5 
8 
6 
0.05 
Abutments
Upper part 
 
 
4 
0.05 
Abutments lower part 
 
 
4 
0.05 
9. Elasticity modulus of the masonry
The Conex data show a large variation of
the values of the elasticity modulus, so that three different values were
defined for each material (minimum, mean and maximum).

E
min MPa 
E
max MPa 
E
mean MPa 
Arch 
6000 
10000 
8000 
Wedge 
3000 
5000 
5000 
Middle spandrel 
3000 
5000 
5000 
Lateral spandrels 
5000 
8000 
6000 
Slab 
5000 
8000 
6000 
Abutments
Upper part 
 
 
4000 
Abutments lower part 
 
 
15000 
The analyses were performed adopting
three different combinations of the elasticity modulus of the structural
elements:
A 
the mean
values of the elasticity modulus for all the structural elements 
B 
the
maximum value of the elasticity modulus for the arch and the minimum
values for the other structural elements 
C 
the
maximum values of E for all the structural elements. 
The following table lists all the
analyses performed. The number indicates the load combination, while the
capital letter (A, B or C) indicates the combination of the elasticity
moduli.
Symbol 
Combination of
load conditions 
Values of the elasticity
modulus adopted 
1 A 
1.0 a + 1.0 b 
mean values of the elasticity modulus for the
whole structure 
1 B^{1} 
1.0 a + 1.0 b 
maximum value of E for the arch and minimum
value of E for the other parts 
2 A^{1} 
1.0 a + 1.0 c 
mean values of the elasticity modulus for the
whole structure 
2 B^{1} 
1.0 a + 1.0 c 
maximum value of E for the arch and minimum
value of E for the other parts 
3 A 
1.35 a + 1.35 b 
mean values of the elasticity modulus for the
whole structure 
3 B 
1.35 a + 1.35 b 
maximum value of E for the arch and minimum
value of E for the other parts 
4 A 
1.35 a + 1.35 c 
mean values of the elasticity modulus for the
whole structure 
4 B 
1.35 a + 1.35 c 
maximum value of E for the arch and minimum
value of E for the other parts 
5 A 
1.35 a + 0.54 b + 1.5
d 
mean values of the elasticity modulus for the
whole structure 
5 C 
1.35 a + 0.54 b + 1.5
d 
maximum values of the elasticity modulus for
the whole structure 
6 A 
1.35 a + 0.54 b + 1.5
e 
mean values of the elasticity modulus for the
whole structure 
6 C 
1.35 a + 0.54 b + 1.5
e 
maximum values of the elasticity modulus for
the whole structure 
7 A 
1.35 a + 0.40 b + 0.5
d + 1.0
f 
mean values of the elasticity modulus for the
whole structure 
8 A 
1.00 a + 0.5
d +
1.5 g 
mean values of the elasticity modulus for the
whole structure 
(1) The first four load
combinations were used in the phase A of the research, where the
"allowable stresses" method was used. In the phase B the
"limit state" method was used according to Eurocode, anyway the
combinations of the phase A were maintained.
 dead and permanent loads
 live load uniformly distributed
over the whole bridge
 live load uniformly distributed
over half the bridge
 uniform thermal
load +15 °C
 uniform thermal
load 15 °C
 flood load
 earthquake load

