7.12 Final design
for stone cut
Stone cut design, either SCrough, either SCfinal, of
all the stones have been performed trough the use of charts that have been
organised in four different books (for a global amount of 45000 data).
These books contain both the dimensions of the stones and all the
coordinates of the intrados and extrados curves of the bridge arch. Books
have been subdivided mainly as follows:
 stone cut  book 01 SMSA Stari Most Stones Arch
 stone cut  book 02 SMSA Stari Most Stones Arch
 stone cut  book 03 SMSA Stari Most Stones Arch
 stone cut  book 04 SMSB Stari Most Stones Bridge
fig.17 one schedule
taken from book 01 and one taken from book 02
fig.18 one schedule
taken from book 03 and one taken from book 04
In the above images some schedules taken from each book
have been represented in a preview format. Contents of each book is here
next briefly described:
book 01 (about 8000 data): stone cut of all the stones
of the load bearing arch, trough a management by row; each schedule
contains the following sections:
 coding
 schematic drawing of the arch row with reference dimensions
 on site final cut dimensions
 quarrying dimensions and volumes
 reference coordinates
book02 (about 12000 data): stone cut of all the stones
of the load bearing arch, trough a management by stone; each schedule
contains the following sections (for each stone):
 coding
 on site final cut dimensions
 quarrying dimensions and volumes
book03 (about 17000 data): coordinates of all the
stones of the load bearing arch, trough a management by stone; each
schedule contains the following sections (for each stone):
 coding
 intrados and extrados coordinates
book04 (about 8000 data): stone cut of all the stones
of the bridge, trough a management by stone; each schedule contains the
following sections (for each stone):
 coding
 on site reference cut dimensions
 quarrying dimensions and volumes
The use of the above books and charts requires a
preliminary study and analysis of the organisation of data and requires to
follow instructions that are reported in next paragraphs.
Any misuse or wrong interpretation of the books may
lead to insurmountable difficulties in respecting the geometry of the
former bridge; General Engineering, for the above reason, is available for
any further explanation of the data, of their meaning and of their correct
use: a direct technical meeting is anyhow desirable in order that no
misunderstanding takes place. General Engineering will not be responsible
of any incorrect use of the stone cut dimensions and coordinates
contained in the mentioned books.
7.12.1
Stone cut  book 01  SMSA
use of the book:
The book should be used for the following purposes:
 stone rough cut (SCrough) of the voussoirs of the load bearing arch
(SMSA);
 stone final cut (SCfinal) of the voussoirs of the load bearing arch
(SMSA);
 geometry determination of the bridge intrados and extrados
curvatures.
note:
This book has been worked out managing the stone cut by
rows, which means that some simplifications have been introduced in order
to reduce at the highest level as possible the number of dimensions and
coordinates used. The accuracy is anyhow guaranteed but volume of stone,
for rough stone cut (SCrough) is globally higher of about five cubic
meters, being all the rough blocks in a row assumed with the same front
face size. Measures and coordinates for final stone cut (SCfinal) are
limited only to the ones of north and south elevation outer faces;
measures have been given also for row plan and its deviation. Stones which
are located in between the two edge voussoirs may be determined, for their
length trough the use of annexed dimensions, and for what concern the
faces, trough on site interpolation (using ropes or any similar reference
collimator).
warning:
Stone final cut measures are reference dimensions,
(given for all the rows and all the voussoirs), that define a theoretical
volume which does not consider the thickness of joints, (measures are
referred to the joint center line), and which has been worked out by
linking with straight lines the extreme faces of each row. This means that
this volume with all its dimensions will have to be followed as a
reference limit and all the geometrical variations between north and south
elevation will be performed by small steps of adjacent voussoirs and not
by straight ideal profile which would make the stone cut much more complex
and the result quite different from the former bridge.
section 01  code and numbering:
fig.19 section 01 of
book 01
 schedule number (1111): number of the schedule (as many as the rows
of the load bearing arch);
 first intrados joint number (1111): number of the first intrados row
joint starting from east origin (as many as the rows of the load bearing
arch);
 intrados row roman number (ICXI): roman number of the rows (following
numbering of 1955);
 number of stone in a row (25): number of stone voussoirs contained in
current row.
section 02  schematic drawing of the arch row with
reference dimensions:
fig.20 section 02 of
book 01
The above schematic drawing is an axonometric view of
the current row and varies in the schedules depending on the number of
voussoirs contained in the row (25) and there are drawn all the
dimensions that have been used in the chart with variable conventional
names. All the voussoirs are here conventionally represented of identical
size as a scheme obviously not to measured and not in scale.
section 03  on site final cut dimensions:
fig.21
section 03 of book 01
Reference measures to be used for stone final cut
(SCfinal), if the simplified management by rows is chosen. Measures are
here reduced to the minimum number as possible. Measures are given in
centimetres and joint tolerance is equal to zero.
 north side: dimensions of north front face of current row;
 south side: dimensions of south front face of current row;
 row plan: dimensions of the row plan (real dimensions of the row due
to deviations); the variable "dev" is the deviation from row
plan of the vertex I_{1s} assuming all the other intrados
points belonging to a single plan: the measure may be used to manage
the rotation of the voussoirs from north to south along one row;
 current row stones: length of single stones in a row starting from
north to south and assuming joint equal to zero (as for all the others
dimensions); the variable "nov" is the number of voussoirs
in current row.
section 04  quarrying dimensions and volumes:
fig.22
section 04 of book 01
Reference measures to be
used for stone rough cut (SCrough), if the simplified management by rows
is chosen. Measures are here reduced to the minimum number as possible.
Measures are given in centimetres and cubic meters (for volumes).
Quarrying tolerance is a minimum of cm 3 each side.
 stone face: is a model face shape, wide enough to be suitable for
all the voussoirs of a row, (this simplification will cost about 5
cubic meters for all the bridge arch, being the size of faces in a row
quite constant);
 current row stones: length of single stones in a row starting from
north to south; the variable "nov" is the number of
voussoirs in current row;
 stone volumes: volume of single parallelepiped block; total volume
of the row is given as well.
section 05  reference coordinates:
fig.23
section 05 of book 01
Reference coordinates to be used for wooden deck and centering layout
and positioning on site. First group of coordinates is given in three
dimensions with the origin located in the north east arch springer (over
the impost level) and x and y axis laying on the elevation plan. Second
group of coordinates is in two dimensions and is given only for the first
row joint (starting from east to west): origins of north side is located
in north east arch springer while for the south side is located in the
south east arch springer. This second group of coordinates may be used
during the construction and layout of the wooden deck. Coordinate should
be used only after verify on site.
7.12.2
Stone cut  book 02  SMSA
use of the book:
The book should be used for the following purposes:
 stone rough cut (SCrough) of the voussoirs of the load bearing arch
(SMSA);
 stone final cut (SCfinal) of the voussoirs of the load bearing arch
(SMSA).
note:
This book has been worked out managing the stone cut by
single voussoirs, which means that measures have been given for all the
stone faces. The accuracy is equal to the previous method (book 01) but
more dimensions have been given in order that even inner voussoirs could
be defined. For what concern rough stone cut, (SCrough), it has been
worked out a parallelepiped block for each voussoir that best suits the
final voussoir and minimise the use of stone (5 cubic meters of stone will
be saved following this book).
warning:
Stone final cut measures are reference dimensions,
(given for all the rows and all the voussoirs), that define a theoretical
volume which does not consider the thickness of joints, (measures are
referred to the joint center line), and which has been worked out by
linking with straight lines the extreme faces of each row. This means that
this volume with all its dimensions will have to be followed as a
reference limit and all the geometrical variations between north and south
elevation will be performed by small steps of adjacent voussoirs and not
by straight ideal profile which would make the stone cut much more complex
and the result quite different from the former bridge.
section 01  code and numbering:
fig.24
section 01 of book 02
 schedule number (1111): number of the schedule (as many as the rows
of the load bearing arch);
 first intrados joint number (1111): number of the first intrados
row joint starting from east origin (as many as the rows of the load
bearing arch);
 intrados row roman number (ICXI): roman number of the rows
(following numbering of 1955);
 number of stone in a row (25): number of stone voussoirs contained
in current row.
section 02  on site final cut dimensions, quarrying
dimensions and volume:
fig.25 section
02 of book 02
section 02 a  on site final cut dimensions:
These Reference measures may be used for stone final
cut (SCfinal), if the detailed management by single voussoirs is chosen.
Measures are here defined for each arch stone. Measures are given in
centimetres and joint tolerance is equal to zero.
 north side: dimensions of north front face of current stone in
current row;
 south side: dimensions of south front face of current stone in
current row;
 block plan: dimensions of the block plan (real dimensions of the
arch stone due to deviations); the variable "k" is the
reference thickness of the voussoir related to the thickness of the
whole arch.
section 02 b  quarrying dimensions and volume:
Reference measures to be used for stone rough cut
(SCrough), if the detailed management by arch stone is chosen. Measures
are here enough to define all stone voussoirs. Measures are given in
centimetres and cubic meters (for volumes). Quarrying tolerance is a
minimum of cm 3 each side.
 quarrying dimensions: three dimensions are given in order to define
a parallelepiped block of stone wide enough to contain the final
voussoir with the planned minimum tolerance, (Bqt=base, Hqt=height,
Kqt=thickness);
 block volume: volume of single parallelepiped block.
note for section 02:
Section 02 is repeated in the chart five times, as many
as the maximum number of voussoir that are contained in a single row; this
of course implies that, being each schedule representative for one arch
row, some of the charts that contain a lower number of stones will have
from 1 to 3 of these sections completely empty (values equal to zero).
Numbering of arch stones is given on the left of
section 02:
 first number is row number and is coherent to the schedule number;
 second number is the arch stone number (15) which goes from north
to south (stone number one is on the north elevation side, and the
others follow progressively towards the south elevation).
 Id number is an identification number and it is of little use for
the work (it has been used for managing of data).
7.12.3
Stone cut  book 03  SMSA
use of the book:
The book should be used for the following purpose:
 geometry determination of the bridge intrados and extrados
curvatures.
note:
This book has been worked out managing the coordinate
calculation by single voussoirs, which means that coordinates have been
given for all the center lines of the joints. The accuracy is equal to
coordinates contained in book 01, but more coordinates have been given
in order that even inner voussoirs could be defined.
warning:
Coordinate should be verified by check on site of
relative position of the four arch springers. Inner coordinates should be
considered as reference points since defining the theoretical volume of
each row.
section 01  code and numbering:
fig.26 section 01 of
book 03
 schedule number (1111): number of the schedule (as many as the rows
of the load bearing arch);
 first intrados joint number (1111): number of the first intrados
row joint starting from east origin (as many as the rows of the load
bearing arch);
 intrados row roman number (ICXI): roman number of the rows
(following numbering of 1955);
 number of stone in a row (25): number of stone voussoirs contained
in current row.
section 02  3d coordinates:
fig.27 section 02 of
book 03
Reference coordinates to be used for wooden deck and
centering layout and positioning on site. Coordinates are given in three
dimensions with the origin located in the north east arch springer (over
the impost level) and x and y axis laying on the elevation plan.
In this book coordinate are given for all the points
that define the center lines of all the joints of the load bearing arch.
Coordinate should be used only after verify on site.
note for section 02:
Section 02 is repeated in the chart five times, as many
as the maximum number of voussoir that are contained in a single row; this
of course implies that, being each schedule representative for one arch
row, some of the charts that contain a lower number of stones will have
from 1 to 3 of these sections completely empty (values equal to zero).
Numbering of arch stones is given on the left of
section 02:
 first number is row number and is coherent to the schedule number;
 second number is the arch stone number (15) which goes from north
to south (stone number one is on the north elevation side, and the
others follow progressively towards the south elevation).
 Id number is an identification number and it is of little use for
the work (it has been used for managing of data).
 Dy0: is the deviation for current stone concerning the row joint
with index 0
 Dy1: is the deviation for current stone concerning the row joint
with index 1
deviation dimensions may be used to manage (trough the
use of the wooden wedges) the rotation of the voussoirs from north to
south along one row.
7.12.4
Stone cut  book 04  SMSB
use of the book:
The book should be used for the following purposes:
 stone rough cut (SCrough) of bridge stone elements: spandrels,
cornices and parapets (SMSB);
 stone final cut (SCfinal) of bridge stone elements: spandrels,
cornices and parapets (SMSB).
note:
This book has been worked out managing the stone cut by
single stone block. The book is subdivided in different sections that are
here next listed:
SMSBsp_ne spandrel stones north elevation east side
SMSBsp_nw spandrel stones north elevation west side
SMSBsp_se spandrel stones south elevation east side
SMSBsp_sw spandrel stones south elevation west side
SMSBcs_north cornices stones (upper and lower) north
elevation
SMSBcs_south cornices stones (upper and lower) south
elevation
SMSBpa_north parapet stones (upper and lower) north
elevation
SMSBpa_south parapet stones (upper and lower) south
elevation
For each stone element of the bridge (SMSB) it has
been worked out the smallest parallelepiped that could contain it. This
parallelepiped dimensions are the final cut dimensions that are given in
charts; any eventual additional cut is defined in the drawings as well as
the exact location of the stone. Therefore final cut (SCfinal) given in
book 04 is most of the times not exhaustive except for those stones which
have a parallelepiped final shape: this of course is not the case of all
the cornices and parapets.
Rough stone cut (SCrough) has been worked out by
adding the quarrying tolerance to all the dimensions of the final shaped
blocks: 3 centimetres for each side = to 6 centimetres for each dimension.
Thickness of spandrel, cornice and parapet elements
have been given by range values being these dimensions unknown and quite
variable from the study of the bridge transversal section. Design approach
trough range dimensions for the undetermined dimensions is one of the
basic philosophical choice of this rehabilitation design and it is aimed
at reproducing the same quantity of randomly that was proper of the former
structure. Criteria adopted for range dimensions are results of
observations of the ancient bridge remaining portions and are here next
resumed:
element 
thickness range dim. 

min (cm) 
max (cm) 



spandrel 
60 
85 
lower cornice 
60 
70 
upper cornice 
80 
90 
parapet 
20 
26 
warning:
Stone book 04 is not enough to complete the stone final
cut: SC drawings are required.
Stone rough cut (SCrough) dimensions of thickness are
evaluated with the following criteria:
Stone final cut measures are reference dimensions that
define a theoretical volume which does not consider the thickness of
joints, (measures are referred to the joint center line).
section 01  code and numbering:
fig.28 section 01 of
book 04
 type: may be spandrel, cornice and parapet depending on the content
of the schedule;
 elevation: may be north or south elevation being the bridge oriented
that way;
 side: (used for parapets only) it is referred to half of the
elevation: may be east or west side;
 code: it is the conventional code used by General Engineering for
the group of stones which are listed and dimensioned in current
schedule.
section 02  on site final cut dimensions, quarrying
dimensions and volume:
fig.29 section 02 of
book 04
section 02 a  additional coding references:
Additional codes are provided and here next described:
code: code: it is the conventional code used by General
Engineering for the group of stones which are listed and dimensioned in
current schedule;
num: is the progressive number of the group of stone:
with this number it is possible to locate the stone also on the drawings
and to have documentation on any additional cut;
type: may be spandrel, cornice and parapet depending on
the content of the schedule;
sub: (used only for cornices) subtype: may be upper or
lower depending on the analysed cornice;
elevation: may be north or south elevation being the
bridge oriented that way;
side: (used for parapets only) it is referred to half
of the elevation: may be east or west side;
section 02 b  on site final cut dimensions:
These Reference measures may be used for stone final
cut (SCfinal). Measures are here defined for each arch stone. These
dimensions are the final cut dimensions but any eventual additional cut is
defined in the drawings as well as the exact location of the stone.
Measures are given in centimetres and joint tolerance is equal to zero.
 base (b): dimensions of the base of the element (side that will lay
over other stones);
 height (h): dimensions of height of the element (side adjacent to
other stones);
 thickness (t): Thickness of the element given by range dimensions
(it means that it must randomly varies in the range depending on the
case, level location, availability and on alternation of the ashlar
blocks thickness).
section 02 c  quarrying dimensions and volume:
Reference measures to be used for stone rough cut
(SCrough). Measures are here enough to define all stone blocks. Measures
are given in centimetres and cubic meters (for volumes). Quarrying
tolerance is a minimum of cm 3 each side.
 base (bqt): dimensions of the base of the element + 2qt (side that
will lay over other stones);
 height (hqt): dimensions of height of the element + 2qt (side
adjacent to other stones);
 thickness (t): Thickness of the element given by an average value
+2qt (it means that it must randomly varies in the range depending on
the case, level location, availability and on alternation of the
ashlar blocks thickness).
 block volume (vqt): volume of single parallelepiped block assumed
with thickness average value
note for section 02:
Section 02 is repeated in the chart six times, as many
as the schedule could contain. Numbering of block stones is given on the
left of section 02.
Moreover it is important to point out that the
thicknessaveragedimension "t" is an indicative value that
should vary in the thicknessrange. For instance a spandrel block which
has:
 t range = cm60<> 85
 t average = cm79
actually should be in the range of cm(60+6)« (85+6) =
cm66« 91 and anyhow it could be even better to have it in an higher range
cm(70+6)« (85+6) = cm76« 91 (because bigger blocks were more frequent in
the layout). The stones shouldnt be all of cm79 that is an average
indicative dimension.
For what concern the thickness of the parapets it has
to be underlined that quite often the parapets had a profile which was
thicker at the bottom than at the top. For the above reason the proposed
average thickness of cm29 will let in some points a smaller quarrying
tolerance and therefore it is desirable not to reduce it during the stone
rough cut.
Finally stone SMSBsp_nw 75 has to be changed as
follows:
h=24.3 > h=29
hqt=30 > h=35 